• Maja Panajotovikj Radevska Institute of Occupational Health of R.N. Macedonia, WHO Collaborating Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Jovanka Karadzinska Bislimovska Institute of Occupational Health of R.N. Macedonia, WHO Collaborating Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia


Ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, nurses


Introduction: Ergonomic factors are one of the most significant factors that occur in various specific work processes in the healthcare sector and different workplaces, resulting in side effects on health workers’ health.

Aim: The aim of this study was to present a risk assessment of musculoskeletal disorders in nurses using the WERA questionnaire for ergonomic risk assessment at the workplace.

Materials and methods: A total of 160 nurses in three categories (primary, secondary, and dentistry fields) were surveyed. This study employed the Standard Nordic questionnaire for analyzing musculoskeletal symptoms and the WERA questionnaire for ergonomic risk assessment at the workplace.

Results: According to the results of the WERA questionnaire, 57.5% of nurses had a moderate degree of risk that required corrective measures, and 30% had a high level of risk that was unacceptable and required immediate improvements. Musculoskeletal issues occurring within the last 12 months were most common in the lower back (63.8%), neck (32.5%), and knees (24.9%). Musculoskeletal problems in the recent seven days were most common in the lower back, found in 40.6% of nurses.

Conclusion: Overall, based on the outcomes of this study, there is a need for the establishment of relevant ergonomic programs for professional prevention of the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders in nurses.


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