• Tatjana Georgievska Jancheska Center for Rehabilitation of Verbal Communication Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia


lambdacism, rhotacism, articulation, speech sound, speech


Introduction: In the child’s speech development, speech sound appears first. Speech sound is the primary means of expression and articulation disorders can hinder the comprehensibility of children’s speech. The improper speech can limit the child’s inclusion in the social and educational environment.

Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out on a random sample selected from preventive examinations for early diagnosis of impairments of hearing, speech and sounds in children aged 5-6 years. In the selected sample (n=275) of boys and girls, from rural or urban area, the frequency and distribution of lambdacism, rhotacism, or both disorders together were analyzed. The data was statistically and descriptively analyzed, and presented in tables and figures.

Results: In the analyzed sample, greater presence of lambdacism was observed before lambdacism-rhotacism and rhotacism. Most commonly the articulation disorder appearred alone, as lambdacism or rhotacism, followed by lambdacism-rhotacism, i.e., both disorders together. The disorders were more common among boys than among girls.

Conclusion: The study offers useful information about the prevalence of lambdacism, rhotacism and lambdacism-rhotacism in children of different gender and place of residence. The obtained findings can help in better understanding of the situation and establishing timely diagnosis and planning of the rehabilitation that will enable easier and faster integration of the children in the social and educational environment without long-lasting consequences.


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