Non-metric axial skeleton variations in medieval skeletons


  • Niki Matveeva Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R. North Macedonia
  • Fanica Veljanovska Archeological Museum of R. North Macedonia, Skopje, R. North Macedonia
  • Julija Zhivadinovik Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R. North Macedonia
  • Biljana Zafirova Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R. North Macedonia
  • Elizabeta Chadikovska Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R. North Macedonia
  • Ace Dodevski Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R. North Macedonia
  • Biljana Trpkovska Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R. North Macedonia
  • Biljana Bojadzieva Stojanoska Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, R. North Macedonia


osteology, archeology, anatomical variations, axial skeleton


The majority of researchers use cranial and infracranial non-metric traits as separate entities in their investigations of the past populations. We decided to focus our investigation on the axial skeleton non-metric traits, consisting of components such as cranial and vertebral column skeleton. The main goal of our study was to gain some insight into the expression of axial skeleton non-metric traits in a medieval population sample. We investigated 72 well preserved skeletons from the medieval period documented collection (11-12 century AD) in order to examine axial skeleton non-metric traits. The skeletons belonged to individuals aged 20 to 65 years, of both sexes, exhumed from the necropolis Vinichko Kale.

Analysis of cranial non-metric traits in our population sample showed a high prevalence of occipital bone cranial traits, such as os apicis (13.9%) and torus occipitalis (20.8%). Among vertebral column non-metric traits, a high prevalence of cervical spine traits, such as ponticulus posterior atlantis (11%), foramen transversarium partitum - FTP (33.3%), foramen transversarium apertum - FTA (13.9%) and cervical ribs (13.9%) was noted. Our findings of skeletal non-metric traits in the medieval population can provide additional knowledge in the skeletal growth and development in general.



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2021-12-27 — Updated on 2022-01-10




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