• Monika Neloska Assistenzarztin Innere Abteilung Hospital zum Hl. Geist, Geseke Nordrhein-Westfalen, Deutschland
  • Viktor Isjanovski Bardovci Mental Hospital, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Igor Isjanovski University Clinic for Eye Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia


transmission, knowledge, practice, hepatitis B, healthy population


Introduction: This study aims to evaluate Knowledge of transmission and practice (KAP) towards Hepatitis B (HBV) among healthy population of R.N. Macedonia.

Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken. 600 healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above) were approached for the study. Descriptive statistics were conducted using frequencies and proportions. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as indicators of the strength of association. A p-value of 0.05 or less was used as cut off level for statistical significance. All analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. Internal consistency was assessed by using Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.78) and was found to be in acceptable ranges.

Results: Majority of participants (39.7%) were from the age group 40–49 and 65.3% of the respondents were female, 46.8% were with university degree; 72.2% of the study participants were married; 92.2%of the respondents came from urban area; 76.7% were employed and 67.7% with moderate monthly income. In terms of knowledge about the mode of transmission, the majority of respondents, i.e. participants in the study showed a moderate level of knowledge - 56.6% points (50% -75% points). Poor knowledge was evident in the answers to the questions related to the transmission piercing-48.3% and the question related to the transmission question cocaine sniffing - 21.0%) Correct answer in the study that showed a good level of knowledge i.v. drug use 87.2%  

Conclusion: The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge of transmission can lead to positive prevention and subsequently in good practices. 


Kumar A, Khateeb US, Alghamdi AB, Jeri SY, Kaul V. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about hepatitis B in dentists, dental students, interns and auxiliaries in Jammu and Kashmir- an epidemiological study. International Journal of Oral Health Dentistry 2017; 3(1): 38-42.

Nagpal B, Hedge U. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Hepatitis B among dental students. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2016; 5(5): 1123-7.

WHO Fact sheet N°204. Hepatitis B. Available at:


Wachs ME, Amend WJ, Ascher NL, Bretan PN, Emond J, Lake JR et al. et al. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B from HBsAg(-), HBcAb(+), HBIgM(-) organ donors. Transplantation 1995; 27; 59(2): 230-4.

Williams R. Global challenges in liver disease. Hepatology 2006; 44(3): 521-6.

Yayehyirad K, Asfaw D, Hailemariam K, Mengistu A, Binyam A, et al. Of Institutions and Persons. Ethio J Health Dev 2009; 23 (especial issue) 173–223

Mesfin MY, Kibret KT. Assessment of Knowledge and Practice towards Hepatitis B among Medical and Health Science Students in Haramaya University, Ethiopia, PLOS ONE, November 2013; Vol 8 : Issue 11.

Muhammad SM, Shoaib A, Rashid N, Naresh KK, Mukhtar AM. Hepatitis B vaccination status in health care worker of two university hospitals. J LUMHS 2007; 2000: 48-51.

Good B. (1994) Medicine, rationality, and experience: an anthropological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Pr.

Yoder PS. Negotiating relevance: belief, knowledge, and practice in international health projects. Med Anthropol Q 1997; 11: 131-46.

Fufore MB, Cook PA, Kirfi AM. Health Workers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Hepatitis B Infection in Northern Nigeria. International Journal of Caring Sciences 2016; Volume 9 , Issue 3, Page 939-954.

Mehriban N, Ahsan G, & Islam T. Knowledge and preventive practices regarding Hepatitis B among nurses in some selected hospitals of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. SE Asia J Pub Health 2015; 4(1): 48-52.

Oyewusi CO, Okanlawon FA, &Ndikom CM. Knowledge and Utilization of Hepatitis B Infection Preventive Measures and Influencing Factors among Health Care Workers in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Journal of Caring Sciences 2015; 8(1): 164-76.

Abeje G, Azage M. Hepatitis B vaccine knowledge and vaccination status among health care workers of Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis 2015; 15(1): 30-35.

Alkandari A, Aljodar S, Albahhouh H, Makboul G, El-Shazly M. Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-Reported Behaviour of Primary Health Care Workers for Hepatitis B and C Virus and other Health Care Associated Infection. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences 2013; 3(1): 18-31.

Adekanle O, Ndububa D, Olowookere S, Ijarotimi O, Ijadunola K. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Immunization with Hepatitis B Vaccine, Risk Perception, and Challenges to Control Hepatitis among Hospital Workers in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Hepatitis Research And Treatment 2015; 1-6.

Bakry S, Mustafa A, Eldalo A, Yousif MA. Knowledge, attitude and practice of health-care workers toward Hepatitis B virus infection, Sudan. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2012; 24(2): 95-102.

Djeriri K, Laurichesse H, Merle J, Charof R, Abouyoub A, Fontana L, et al. Hepatitis B in Moroccan health-care workers. Occup Med 2008; 58(6): 419-24.

Kabir A, Tabatabaei SV, Khaleghi S, Agah S, Faghihi Kashani AH, Moghimi M, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of Iranian medical specialists regarding hepatitis B and C. Hepat Mon. 2010;10(3):176-82.

Paez Jimenez A, El-Din NS, El-Hoseiny M, El-Daly M, Abdel-Hamid M, El Aidi S, et al. Community transmission of hepatitis B virus in Egypt: results from a case-control study in Greater Cairo. Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Jun;38(3):757-65.

Crutzen R, Goritz AS. Public awareness and practical knowledge regarding hepatitis A, B, and C: a two-country survey. J Infection Public Health 2012; 5: 195-8.

Wu CA, Lin SY, So SK, Chang ET. Hepatitis B and liver cancer knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8(1):127-34.

Cheung J, Lee TK, Teh CZ, Wang C, Kwan W, Yoshida EM. Cross-sectional study of hepatitis B awareness among Chinese and Southeast Asian Canadians in the Vancouver-Richmond community. Can J Gastroenterol 2005; 19: 245-9.

Gebrecherkos, Teklay, Getu Girmay, Mulualem Lemma, and Markos Negash. Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards Hepatitis B virus among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Int J Hepatol 2020:5617603.

Saquib S, Weam I, Ali O, Mohammed A, Al-Shari H, Al-Qarni A. Exploring the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Hepatitis B infection among dental students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019; 7(5): 805-9.

Olaniyan A, Oke G, Folaranmi P, Adetunji B. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Hepatitis B Infection among Ogbomosho L.G.A Dwellers: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Pub Health Safe 2020; 5: 6.

Kesieme EB, Uwakwe K, Irekpita E, Dongo A, Bwala KJ, & Alegbeleye BJ. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Operating Room Personnel in Nigeria and Their Vaccination Status.Hindawi Publishing Corporation: Hepatitis Research and Treatment 2011; Vol. 2011, Article ID 157089: 1-5.

Okwara E, Enwere O, Diwe C, Azike J, & Chukwulebe A. Theatre and laboratory workers’ awareness of and safety practices against hepatitis B and C infection in a suburban university teaching hospital in Nigeria. The Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 13(2): 1-5.

Okeke E, Ladep N, Agaba E, & Malu A. Hepatitis B vaccination status and needle stick injuries among medical students in a Nigerian university. Nigerian Journal of Medicine 2008; 17(3): 330-2.

Fatusi A, Esimai A, Onayade A, & Ojo O. Aceptance of Hepatitis B vaccine by workers in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. East African Medical Journal 2010 ; 77(11): 608-12.

Razi A, Ur Rehman R, Naz S, Ghafoor F, Khan MAU. Knowledge attitude and practices of university students regarding hepatitis B and C. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 2010; 5: 38-43.

Shalaby S, Kabbash I, El Saleet G, Mansour N, Omar A, El Nawawy A. Hepatitis B and C viral infection: prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practice among barbers and clients in Gharbia governorate, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J 2007; 16: 10-17.

Misra B, Panda C, Das HS, Nayak KC, Singh SP. Study on awareness about Hepatitis B viral infection in coastal eastern india. Hepatitis B Annual 2009; 6(1): 19-28.

Taylor VM, Talbot J, Do HH, Liu Q, Yasui Y, Jackson JC, et al. Hepatitis B Knowledge and Practices among Cambodian Americans. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011; 12(4): 957-61.






Original Articles